AAB - President
Annals of Applied Biology

 

Notes to Authors  

 

FOREWORD

An eminent politician, when asked which aspect of his work he found most difficult, is said to have replied, "Writing is the only really hard work", a view with which many scientists would concur. Writing a research paper or review which is acceptable for publication in a scientific journal is not easy and after the toil of preparing a manuscript authors are, naturally, anxious to see their efforts in print as quickly as possible.

These notes have been compiled for potential contributors to Annals of Applied Biology, stating the rules and conventions which may assist them in preparing manuscripts to an acceptable standard. A well-presented script will impress editors and referees favourably; it will require a minimum of revision and editing, thus ensuring more rapid publication. Conversely, a poorly or carelessly prepared paper will take longer to bring to a publishable standard and will be expensive for the Association to process. Please note that contributions that focus on the description of genetic diversity and genotype analysis without advancing knowledge of applied biology will not be considered for publication.

Ideally, a final script will contain all the necessary instructions to enable the Editorial Administrator to set the copy without any ambiguity. Authors are strongly urged to ensure that they are satisfied with the final agreed version of their scripts. The re-phrasing of a paragraph at proof stage is very costly and to be avoided unless essential. The Association reserves the right to charge for extensive modification to proofs.  

 

--INSTRUCTIONS TO AUTHORS--

EXCLUSIVE LICENCE FORM  

Authors are required to sign an exclusive licence form (ELF) granting the Association of Applied Biologists exclusive publishing rights for all papers accepted for publication. Signature of the ELF is a condition of publication and papers will not be passed to the publisher unless a signed form has been received. Signature of the ELF does not affect ownership of copyright in the material. After publication authors retain the right to publish their paper in various medium/ circumstances (please refer to the form for more information). The ELF can be downloaded from the Annals online submission website http://aab.manuscriptcentral.com.  

Production will not start on your paper until we are in receipt of a signed exclusive licence form.  

Government employees need to complete the AUTHOR WARRANTY sections, although copyright in such cases does not need to be assigned. For multi-author papers, it is the responsibility of the corresponding author to assign copyright, on behalf of all contributors.  

 

SUBMISSIONS  

Pre-submission English-language editing Authors for whom English is a second language may choose to have their manuscript professionally edited before submission to improve the English. A list of independent suppliers of editing services can be found at www.blackwellpublishing.com/bauthor/english_language.asp. All services are paid for and arranged by the author, and use of one of these services does not guarantee acceptance or preference for publication.  

 

Manuscripts  

Annals strongly encourages online submission at http://mc.manuscriptcentral.com/aab. This enables the quickest possible review. Manuscript submission online can be as Word document (.doc), RTF (.rtf), or PDF (.pdf). Figures can be embedded in the native word processor file or uploaded separately as GIF (.gif), JPEG (.jpg), TIFF (.tif), or EPS (.eps). On acceptance, you will be required to provide high resolution graphics files (note that GIF (.gif), JPEG (.jpg), and PNG (.png) files are not acceptable). Full upload instructions and support are available online from the submission site via the Get Help Now button. Please submit your covering letter or comments to the Senior Editor when prompted online.  

 

Revisions  

Revised manuscripts must be submitted in their final form, within 2 months of authors being notified of conditional acceptance (pending satisfactory revision). Resubmissions after this time will be considered as new.  

 

PRESENTATION  

 

Text  

Text should be divided into the following sections and appear in the order: (1) title page (with short running page heading, title, authors names and affiliations), (2) summary, (3) keywords, (4) introduction, (5) materials and methods, (6) results, (7) discussion, (8) acknowledgements, (9) references, (10) supplementary material, (11) tables, (12) figure legends, (13) figures. Authorities for the latin binomial of every organism are not used in the title or summary, and only on the first mention in the main body of the text. Common names of pests and diseases should follow 'MAFF Technical Bulletin No. 6' and the 'List of Common British Plant Diseases' compiled by the British Mycological Society.  

Gene names and loci should be italic, proteins should be roman.  

Virus nomenclature (and acronyms) should follow the guidelines of the International Committee on the Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). The current report is: van Regenmortel MHV, Fauquet CM, Bishop DHL (Eds) (2001) Virus Taxonomy: Seventh Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy Viruses. San Diego: Academic Press. Authors are also advised to check the ITCV website for the latest information.  

Chemical nomenclature should follow the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) definitive rules for nomenclature.  

Pesticides and other industrial products should be referred to by their common names (ISO Publications 1831, 2474, etc.). In the absence of a common name, use the full name or a defined abbreviation, in preference to a trade name. At first mention, trade names should be capitalised.  


Statistics:


The design of all experiments should be explicit and clear.  Particular care should be taken to explain what is meant by a replicate; only biological replication from independent units can be used to assess variation within and between treatments.  Authors should consult a statistician if they require assistance in making inferences from designed experiments.

Biologically meaningful comparisons among treatments must respect the factorial and blocking structures of the experimental design.  The use of contrasts in ANOVA and regression for unplanned comparisons is also appropriate. 

Results as presented should be derived from and be consistent with the analysis done. For designed experiments in particular, results should be summarised by treatment means estimated from the ANOVA, regression, GLM etc. analysis.  The summary should also include the corresponding standard errors of differences between means (SEDs), (or Least Significant Differences (LSDs) or standard errors of means (SEs)) and the degrees of freedom for the residual term from which the SED has been derived.  Table 2 of Bithell et al. 159, 252-266 illustrates this approach.

Standard errors used to compare treatments should be derived from the residual or deviance statistics of ANOVA, regression or GLM etc. analyses.  When such analyses have been carried out, the inclusion of individual standard deviations or standard errors for every mean, based on the raw data, is prohibited.

Excessive comparisons between treatments, not based on biological hypotheses, are discouraged.  In particular, the use of multiple comparison adjustments such as Duncan's or Tukey's is not acceptable, nor is the use of letters to denote treatments which are ‘not significantly different from each other’. 

Help and advice from the Annals statistical editors is available to authors.

 

Proposed online Instructions

Identical to above.

 

Hard-copy Instructions (available on the back page of each Number)

Results as presented should be derived from and be consistent with the analysis done. For designed experiments in particular results should be summarised by treatment means estimated from the ANOVA, regression, GLM etc. analysis.  The summary should also include the corresponding standard errors of differences between means (SEDs), (or Least Significant Differences (LSDs) or standard errors of means (SEs)) and the degrees of freedom for the residual term from which the SED has been derived.  Table 2 of Bithell et al. 159, 252-266 illustrates this approach.

Excessive comparisons between treatments, not based on biological hypotheses, are discouraged.  In particular, the use of multiple comparison adjustments such as Duncan's or Tukey's is not acceptable, nor is the use of letters to denote treatments which are ‘not significantly different from each other’. 

 

Symbols, units and abbreviations should be expressed as Système International (SI) units. In exceptional circumstances, others may be used, provided they are consistent. Apply to the Editorial Office for advice.  

 

References  

References in the text should be inserted in parentheses in full for single and dual authored papers, but using the first author and et al. for multiple authored papers. Reference to personal communications, unedited and un-refereed work, and work that is unpublished should be minimal and should appear in the text only. It is the author's responsibility to obtain permission from colleagues to include their work as a personal communication. References in the list should follow the Harvard system. Refer to a recent copy of the journal for examples.  

 

Supplementary Material Quantitative biological data too extensive for inclusion in the print edition of the journal may be presented in the online edition, as supplementary material (supp. mat.). As such, it will be reviewed as an integral part of the paper. The availability of supp. mat. should be indicated in the main manuscript by a paragraph, to appear after the references, providing titles of figures, tables, etc. There are guidelines regarding supplementary material here.  

 

Graphics  

Numerical results should be presented either as tables or figures, but not both. The journal welcomes colour figures and plates, when information would be lost if reproduced in black and white. Please note there is a charge for colour in print - if you have colour figures please fill in the form here.  

Tables: Tables should be typed on separate pages, as an integral part the text file. They should have a brief descriptive title and be self-explanatory. Units should appear in parentheses in the column headings, not in the body of the table. Repeated words or numerals on successive lines should be written in full. Footnotes should be minimal. When the precision of data is expressed as standard error (se) or standard errors of differences (sed) the degrees of freedom (df) should be given.  

Electronic artwork: Annals strongly encourages submission of electronic artwork. Vector graphics (e.g. line artwork) should be saved in Encapsulated Postscript Format (.eps), and half-tones in Tagged Image File Format (.tif). TIFF files should be supplied at a minimum resolution of 300 dpi (dots per inch) at the final size at which they are to appear in the journal. Colour files should be in CMYK format. Labelling should be in 10pt Times New Roman. Figure sections should be designated with upper case letters.  

Magnification bars should be given on electron and light micrographs. Detailed information on our digital illustration standards is available at this webpage.  

Original artwork: If you are unable to submit electronic artwork, please provide two sets of all figures as high-quality glossy prints at the size that they are to appear in print. One set should be unlabelled.  

Legends: Table and figure legends should be included within the text file and contain sufficient information to be understood without reference to the text. Each should begin with a short title for the figure. Refer to a recent copy of the journal for the prefered ordering off symbols. All symbols and abbreviations should be explained within the legend.  

Cover images: Electronic artwork/original photographs of high quality suitable for the cover of Annals are welcomed. They should be sent to the Editorial Office and be accompanied by a relevant caption. It is preferred, but not essential, that images should be related to submitted papers. Contributors are required to assign copyright to the Association by UK law.  

 

PROOFS  

Proofs will be sent via email as a PDF file. Further instructions will be sent with the proof. Acrobat Reader is required in order to read this file. This can be downloaded (free of charge) from Adobe.  

In your absence, please arrange for a colleague to correct on your behalf.  

 

OFFPRINTS  

A PDF is provided upon publication to the corresponding author. Paper offprints can be purchased prior to print publication from COS Printers.  

 

AUTHOR MATERIAL ARCHIVE POLICY  

Please note that unless specifically requested, Blackwell Publishing will dispose of all hardcopy or electronic material submitted two months after publication. If you require the return of any material submitted, please inform the editorial office or production editor as soon as possible if you have not yet done so.


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