An eminent politician, when asked which aspect of his work he found most difficult, is said to have replied, "Writing is the only really hard work", a view with which many scientists would concur. Writing a research paper or review which is acceptable for publication in a scientific journal is not easy and after the toil of preparing a manuscript authors are, naturally, anxious to see their efforts in print as quickly as possible.
These notes have been compiled for potential contributors to the Annals of Applied Biology, stating the rules and conventions which may assist them in preparing manuscripts to an acceptable standard. A well-presented script will impress editors and referees favourably; it will require a minimum of revision and editing, thus ensuring more rapid publication. Conversely, a poorly or carelessly prepared paper will take longer to bring to a publishable standard and will be expensive for the Association to process.
Ideally, a final script will contain all the necessary instructions to enable the printer to set the copy without any ambiguity. Our printers have very high standards in the typesetting of scientific papers and our aim is to make their job as simple as possible, thus reducing errors and proof correction costs. Even with modern technology, every amendment has to be paid for, so authors are strongly urged to ensure that they are satisfied with the final agreed version of their scripts. The re-phrasing of a paragraph at proof stage is very costly and to be avoided unless essential. The Association reserves the right to charge for extensive modification to proofs.
The following Notes consist of general instructions, together with a fictitious specimen manuscript, necessarily truncated. The margin notes, explained later in more detail, show the typing conventions, layout headings and abbreviations required for the Annals. These should be followed precisely. There are also notes for the guidance of typists, and some conventions for instructing the printer. The closer a submitted typescript matches the final requirements, the quicker it can be edited, processed and published.
The Annals of Applied Biology is a journal devoted mainly to the publication of original research papers on all aspects of applied biology pertaining to crop production; such papers must represent a substantial advance in the existing knowledge of the subject. In addition to research papers, review papers and short research reports are also welcomed. Short research reports (normally 2-3 printed pages) should conform to the same format as research papers except that no summary or abstract is required. Papers or reviews must not be offered to any other journal for prior or simultaneous publication.
Authors should send four copies of their manuscript, typed and double-spaced on white opaque A4 paper, to The Editorial Administrator, Annals of Applied Biology, AAB Office, c/o Horticulture Research International, Wellesbourne, Warwick CV35 9EF, UK. Receipt will be acknowledged giving a reference number to which authors should refer in any subsequent correspondence. Manuscripts can also be sent by e-mail to: email@example.com. Those submitting manuscripts with more than one author should indicate clearly to which author and address, proofs and other correspondence are to be sent.
In addition to four copies of the typescript, authors are encouraged to submit their final revision on 3½" diskettes, prepared in an MS DOS (including Windows) compatible format, and clearly labelled with the author's name, running title, type of computer, operating system, diskette density and software programme. The preferred programs are Word for Windows or WordPerfect for Windows but the following programmes are among those that can be readily converted: Wordstar 3.3, Multimate Advantage II, Displaywrite and ASCI. Tables and complex equations should not be included as these will be prepared by the printer but figure legends should be included.
Authors should ensure that papers are submitted with the permission and approval of any relevant supervisor, Head of Research or Institute Director in accordance with requirements laid down by the employer. Where a paper has more than one author it will be assumed that the senior or submitting author has agreed the final form of the submission with his/her colleagues.
Authors submit manuscripts on the understanding that, if accepted for publication, exclusive copyright of the paper shall be assigned to the Trustees of The Association of Applied Biologists. A copy of the form of assignment is provided in Appendix I.
The title of the paper should be informative but concise. Serially numbered papers with a common general title may only be accepted if two, or at the most, three, are submitted simultaneously and intended to appear consecutively within one issue of the Annals.
A running title (page heading) not exceeding 64 characters including spaces should be suggested.
The paper should usually be composed of sections as follows -
Summary; Introduction; Materials and Methods; Results; Discussion; Acknowledgements (optional); References - although other structures can also be acceptable where warranted by the content of the paper.
The Summary is not sub-divided and should be a concise outline of the content of the paper.
In each subsequent section, three levels of heading may then be used, in the following order within a section, thus:-
1. Centred heading bold
2. Centred sub-heading (italicised)
3. Side sub-heading (italicised) on a separate line
It is essential that the style of writing should be simple, direct and readable. Avoid unnecessary repetition, extravagant phases and unsubstantiated conjecture. Authors whose native tongue is not English should try to consult an English-speaking colleague for guidance, though assistance may be given by the editor if the scientific substance of the paper is otherwise acceptable. Organise the paper logically, e.g. the Introduction should set the scene by describing briefly the state of the subject at the present time, citing relevant references. Unpublished work, where essential to the background material, may be mentioned but not included in the Reference list. The Introduction should not anticipate the Results nor contain remarks which should more properly be included in the Discussion. Similarly the Results should not contain references to materials and methods used, nor the Discussion a literature review more appropriate to setting the scene in the Introduction.
Numerals are used for all specific units of measurement, e.g. 4 mm; 15 km, 15 ml, 10 µl, 6 wk. Except within Tables, quantities of items up to nine are spelt out, e.g. six leaves, five fields, four larvae; for larger quantities numerals are used e.g. 16 leaves, 43 fields, 140 larvae.
SI units (Le Système International d'Unités) should normally be used. Other units may be accepted in special circumstances provided they are used consistently within a paper and are related at first mention to SI units. Avoid citing units as decimals or as large numbers; thus 15 mg not 0.015 g or l5000 µg. Express concentration as molar (M), µg/g or µg g-1 (not 5% w/v etc.) as appropriate. Note that although either kg/ha or kg ha-1 are acceptable the preferred form is kg ha-1 larger combinations of units may be ambiguous unless the form µg cm-2 s-1 etc. is adopted.
For units, these should conform to British Standard 5775, Parts 0-15 (Letter symbols, signs and abbreviations) and are alike in singular and plural (thus, g not gs or gms). Note particularly, M (molar), P (probability), % (not per cent), RF (not Rf), r.h. (relative humidity), yr, wk, h, mm, s. Abbreviations ending in the last letter of the word are not followed by a full stop; thus, Expt 2, Figs 2 and 3, and cvs (cultivars) but Fig. 1 and cv. (cultivar). A list of commonly used abbreviations is given in Appendix 2. A more comprehensive list is given in Units, Symbols and Abbreviations: a guide for biological and medical editors and authors, 5th Edn 1994, published by The Royal Society of Medical Services, 1 Wimpole Street, London W1M 8EA, UK.
Initial capitals are used in the names of cultivars, genera, proprietary materials, etc., e.g. cv. Majestic, Botrytis, Vaseline, Sellotape, Polythene, Benlate, but not for common names of organisms, diseases or the internationally accepted common or scientific names of chemicals, e.g. potato, codling moth, brown rot, benomyl, zineb, sodium chloride, septoria disease.
Chemical nomenclature should follow the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) definitive rules for 'Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry' (1989, Butterworths, London). Pesticides and other industrial products should generally be referred to by their common names (ISO Publications 1831, 2474, etc.) avoiding trade names except at first mention. In the absence of a common name, use the full name, or a defined abbreviation in preference to a trade name.
Names of viruses may be abbreviated after first mention, e.g. barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV).
Virus nomenclature (and acronyms) should follow the guidelines of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). The current report is:
Murphy, F A. et al. (eds). 1995. Virus Taxonomy, Classification and Nomenclature of Viruses, Sixth Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. Archives of Virology, Supplement 10, 586 pp., Springer-Verlag, Wien, New York.
Latin names of organisms are italicised except in table headings and in the running title (see specimen paper). Only the generic name of an organism may be abbreviated. Thus Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici becomes G. graminis var. tritici after the first mention, but never Ggt or GGT.
Each table should be on a separate sheet with an italicised heading and must be reasonably self explanatory without reference to the text. Footnotes should be minimal but when required use superior lettering to denote them, e.g.abc.
Do not use ruled lines, but indicate groups of columns by insetting 'braces' and groups of rows by extra line space. Avoid arranging narrow tables with the long axis down the page but, if essential, consider double banking the columns. Present data with only sufficient figures to reflect their precision. Where values of one variable change progressively with those of another, consider presenting the data as a graph in a text figure.
Text figures. Line drawings should be supplied actual size in a form suitable for high-quality reproduction. Axes should be clearly labelled using Times New Roman font. Figure legends should be listed on a separate page. When multiple symbols or types of lines have been used, indicate the key within the legend. For simple figures with no more than three lines, label the curves on the figure and avoid using a key.
Plate-figures. Photographs should be unmounted, glossy, have good contrast and be no larger than will fit onto an A4-size mount. Use a scale mark to indicate the size of objects. Two sets of prints should be provided, the top copy being unlettered and unlabelled. When several photographs are to be mounted on one plate, include a suggested sketch of the desired layout or mount the duplicate set of prints as a suggested layout. Colour plates are acceptable and will be reproduced free of charge where appropriate.
Results must be statistically validated as necessary to aid interpretation of the data. See Statistical Notes to Authors - Appendix 3.
References in the text should follow the Harvard system and appear as follows:-
|One author||-Smith (1982) or (Smith, 1982).|
|Two authors||-Smith & Jones (1982) or (Smith & Jones, 1982).|
|Three or four authors||-Smith, Jones & Bloggs (1982) at first mention, thereafter Smith et al. (1982)|
|Five or more authors||-Smith et al. throughout.|
Where a statement in the text is followed by several references these are separated by semicolons. Thus, "it has been shown (Smith, 1970; Jones, 1980; Bloggs, 1991) that...."
Note also that publications by the same author(s) in the same year should be clearly identified by inserting a, b, c, etc. after the date. Thus two papers by Smith in 1992 should be listed both in the text and in the reference list as Smith (1992a), Smith (1992b) or (Smith, 1992a,b).
The reference list should use the Modified CBE-ELSE-Vancouver with embellishments.
References should be arranged in alphabetical order, including all authors' names, surname preceding initials (i.e. Smith A B). All journal titles should be given in full, not abbreviated.
Examples of correct forms of reference are given below.
Standard journal article
Griffiths H M, Jones D G. 1987. Components of partial resistance as criteria for identifying resistance. Annals of Applied Biology 110:603-610.
No author given
Anon. 1989. Farmers leaflet No.8. Recommended varieties of cereals. Cambridge, UK: National Institute of Agricultural Botany.
Book, personal author(s)
Vanderplank J E. 1963. Plant Diseases: Epidemics and Control. New York and London: Academic Press. 349 pp.
Chapter in a multi-authored book
Bos L. 1982. Virus diseases of faba beans. In Faba bean improvement, pp.233-242. Eds G Hawtin and C Webb. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.
Miller K, Bahariev D, Jordanov M. 1980. Resistance of different tomato varieties to root death caused by Phytophthora species in nutrient film technique. Proceedings of the 5th International Congress on Soilless Culture, Wageningen, pp.229-239.
Consult a recent issue of the 'Annals' for other forms of reference or seek assistance from a professional librarian.
|Running title: Thionazin treatments against Heterodera avenae||(1,2)|
| || |
| || |
| || |
| || ||In a peaty-loam, thionazin injected at 80, 150 and 230 mm deep at 700 or 1400 litres ha-1 killed 95-98% of Heterodera avenae. The populations of H. avenae did not increase for 6 months.........|| || ||(8, 9, 10, 11)|
|Key words: Populations, Heterodera avenae, wheat|| |
| || |
| ||The practice of continuous cropping of cereals in the UK has long been recognised as a factor in increasing populations of the cereal cyst nematode Heterodera avenae Woll. (Seeley & Smith, 1979), which reduces grain yields in north-east Scotland and North Uist......|| ||(12, 13, 14, 15, 16)|
|*Present address: BBSRC Retraining Unit, Cheetham Hall, London UR1 2BI, UK||(17)|
|  The three sites, each of c. 0.2 ha, were sown during November 1981 with wheat, cv. Cappelle-Desprez, and oats, cvs Milford and Maldwyn..............||(18, 19)|
|  Injections were made at depths of 80, 150 and 230 mm on 18 February 1982 applying thionazin at 1, 3 or 9 g m-2 (as Killem, Wellington Drugs Ltd; l0 g a.i. kg-1) using a multi-injector drill.||(20, 21)|
|The numbers of Heterodera avenae recovered from soil samples at each site are shown in Table 1 ......||(23, 24)|
|On wheat|| |
|The heaviest infestations occurred.....................|| |
|On oats|| |
|Infestations were generally light (Fig. 1) but symptoms of damage were still apparent (Figs 2 and 3) .........|| |
|The results of the present work appear to confirm the recent findings of D J Bloggs (personal communication)............||(25)|
|We wish to thank J B Clodd for technical assistance and A S O Smith for laboratory assessments.||(26)|
|Bloggs D J, Seedey A B. 1982. Damage to cereals caused by nematodes in Saudi Arabia Journal of Negligible Interest 31:131-133.||(27)|
|Clodd J B. 1968. Tractor driving as an art form. In Farming for the future, pp. 94-l08. Eds F Ordson and T Railer. Manchester: Printwell publications.||(28)|
|Seedey A B, Smith A S O. 1979. Heterodera avenae in the barley field. Report of the Institute of Applied Biology for 1988, pp.81-88.||(29)|
|Table 1. Effect of thionazin treatments on numbers (g-1 soil) of Heterodera avenae recovered from soil samples at three sites planted with wheat [cv. Cappelle-Desprez (W)] and oats [cvs Milford (Oa) and Maldwyn (Ob)]||(30,31)|
|aFor details see Materials and Methods||(34)|
(1) Running title (page heading), not exceeding 64 characters and spaces, italics or underscored for italics.
(2) Words which are normally in italics or underlined (e.g. Heterodera avenae) are not underlined in section or Table headings (i.e. where the rest of the heading is to be italicised).
(3) The title of the paper should be in bold type.
(4) Authors' names in capitals.
(5) Postal address (italicised) must be adequate.
(6) Leave space for acceptance date to be added.
(7) Main section headings in upper and lower case, bold, centred.
(8) Summary indented five spaces on each margin. First line of each paragraph indented a further two spaces.
(9) Full Latin name of organism at first mention.
(10) Abbreviated name of organism after first mention in this section of the text.
(11) Always use numerals for specific units of measurement (e.g. 2 days, 14 m, 3 wk). For other quantities up to and including nine, spell out in full (e.g. four plots, two experiments, nine larvae). Use numerals in all instances for 10 or over (e.g. 20 plots).
Key words: Up to seven relevant words or phrases to be included.
(12) Full stops are not used in commonly accepted abbreviations (e.g. USA, UK). Other organisation may be thus abbreviated after the full version is given at first mention (e.g. 'Horticulture Research International (HRI)': thereafter HRI may be used).
(13) 'recognised', not 'recognized'. Also colonise, fertilise, etc.
(14) Include the authority after the first mention of the name of the organism. Authorities are not used in title or Summary.
(15) Correct form of reference in text.
(16) Note: no capitals used for specified regions. Capitals used only when part of official name.
(17) Present address(es) appear as a footnote to the first page.
(18) Approximation denoted by 'c.', not 'ca'.
(19) An abbreviation which ends in the same letter as the full form does not take a full stop (e.g. Mr, Dr, cvs, Dept). An abbreviation which ends in a different letter from that of the full form takes a full stop (e.g. ssp., cv., var.).
(20) Convention for dates (e.g. 18 February 1994).
(21) At first mention of a proprietary product, give the manufacturer's name and the formulation. Thereafter use the accepted common name. Very occasionally several proprietary products may have to be named if they contain the same active ingredient, but only if no other identifying name is possible.
(22) First level sub-heading to be centralised and italicised; second level sub-heading to be positioned at left hand margin and italicised on a separate line; third level sub-heading to be positioned at left hand margin, italicised on same line as text.
(23) Name of organism in full at first mention in new section.
(24) Write in pencil in margin 'Table 1 near here'.
(25) Convention for reference to personal communication. Do not include information in the Discussion that should more properly be in the Introduction.
(26) In final paragraph acknowledge sources of assistance, grants, etc. Avoid extravagant phrases.
(27) Convention for reference to a journal.
(28) Convention for reference to a book. When referring to a complete book, book title should be in italics; reference ends with total numbers of pages (e.g. '238 pp.').
(29) Convention for reference to an Annual Report.
(30) Title of Tables gives all essential information including abbreviations for cultivars used in column headings.
(31) Title of Table italicised but Latin name (italicised in text) not italicised.
(32) NO RULED LINES. Most Tables require no more than headings above columns (see recent issue of the 'Annals'). Where columns need to be grouped, 'braces', as shown here, are used.
(33) Spaces used to separate data for the three concentrations of thionazin.
(34) Footnote denoted by superscripta.
1. Use A4 white bond paper and preferably a Times 12 point font to obtain a clean, clear typescript, or 10-pitch Roman if using a typewriter.
2. Double-space the script throughout, using one side of the paper only. Margins should be at least 30 mm wide and the Summary should be indented five spaces on each margin.
3. A clear typeface should be used throughout, italicising or underlining any Latin names or phrases. Dot-matrix-printed typescripts are not acceptable. Scripts prepared on a word processor must conform to the above conditions. Line numbering is helpful for editors and referees and should be used whenever possible.
4. Each Table should be typed on a separate sheet of paper. Tables and text should not be interspersed.
5. Legends to Figures should be listed on a separate sheet.
6. Assemble completed scripts thus: Text and References, followed by Tables in their correct order. Figure legends. and the annotated photocopies of Figures. Original Figures should be carefully packed and attached. Please use paper clips, not staples, to hold together the pages of scripts.
7. Three copies of the script will be required. Good photocopies are preferable to carbon copies.
8. Please use First Class Mail or Air Mail whenever possible.
Papers are read by one or more members of the Board of Editors, by one or more independent referees and by a statistician if appropriate. If the paper is acceptable for publication in the Annals it will be edited; if not, it will be returned to the author by the Chairman of the Board of Editors.
When a paper has been edited and revised, the editor will send the final agreed script to the Secretary to the Board of Editors with a recommendation for acceptance. If all is in order, the Secretary will notify the author by letter of the paper's acceptance with an indication of the Volume number in which it should appear. Only then may the paper be cited elsewhere as being 'In press'.
Two copies of the proof of the paper will be sent to the author for correction, one of which will contain amendments already made by the Secretary. The author should add his/her own amendments using the proof correction marks advocated by the British Standards Leaflet No. 5261; Part 2 (1976). Printer's errors should be marked in red, author's errors and corrections in black, though these should be kept to a minimum. The corrected proof, together with any Plate or Figure requiring amendment, should then be returned to the Secretary without delay.
Authors are entitled to 50 free offprints of their paper. Limited photocopying (up to 300 copies) for the authors' personal use is allowed.
All enquiries should be addressed to: The Secretary to the Board of Editors, AAB Office, c/o Horticulture Research International, Wellesbourne, Warwick CV35 9EF, UK, stating the paper reference number.
Authors submitting a manuscript do so on the understanding that if it is accepted for publication, exclusive copyright in the
paper shall be assigned to the Trustees of Annals of Applied Biology because ownership of copyright by one central
organisation tends to ensure that requests by third parties to reprint a contribution, or part of it, are handled efficiently and in
accordance with a general policy which is sensitive both to any relevant changes in international copyright legislation and to the
general desirability of encouraging the dissemination of knowledge. In consideration for the assignment of copyright, the
Trustees (via the Publisher) will supply 50 offprints of each paper.
|In assigning copyright, the Trustees will not put any limitation on the personal freedom of author(s) to use material contained in the paper in other works, which may be done without seeking permission and subject only to normal acknowledgement to the Journal. (Other persons wishing to reproduce text, Tables or Figures from the Journal must seek permission from the Chairman of the Board of Editors and inform authors of their intention).|
|Authors of accepted articles (reviews and research papers) shall use their best endeavours to ensure that the contents of their articles shall be in no way whatever a violation of any existing copyright and that their articles shall contain nothing of a libellous or scandalous character. By signing below, Authors agree to indemnify the Trustees of The Association of Applied Biologists from all suits, claims, proceedings, damages and costs which may be taken or incurred by or against the Trustees of The Association of Applied Biologists on the ground that any matter contained in any part of articles by Authors and Reviewers is an infringement of copyright, or contains anything libellous or scandalous.|
|N.B. This form (or photocopy) must be signed by all authors|
COMMONLY USED WORDS AND ABBREVIATIONS*
|square metre(s)||m2||standard error||SE|
|hectare(s)||ha||standard error of difference||SED|
|millilitre(s)||ml||degrees of freedom||df|
* Abbreviations need not always be used, but if they are used they must be in standard form as indicated earlier. Editors may recommend the use of the full word when this will assist comprehension of a narrative text.
The Annals of Applied Biology has a reputation for the quality of the statistical methods contained in its published
papers. The following notes are intended as guidelines for authors wishing to submit papers. The notes are by no means
exhaustive, and authors are strongly urged to seek the advice of a statistician if in doubt. Adherence to these principles should
enable submitted papers to be processed more quickly.
1. The description of the experimental design and statistical analysis should be clear but concise. From the description it should be possible to understand exactly how the experiment was performed, what data were collected and how they were analysed. Authors should distinguish between experimental variation (from replicated units) and sampling variation (from a single unit).
2. In presenting experimental results please quote estimated values of the relevant statistics (e.g. mean values, regression coefficients, LD50s, etc.) together with their standard errors (SEs) and corresponding degrees of freedom (df) where appropriate. Where analysis of variance has been used it is usually possible to quote a single standard error of a difference (SED) between means. Again, the dfs should be quoted as this enables the referees to check the consistency of the analysis with the stated design, and the general reader to understand the experimental procedure. These remarks apply to figures as well as tables.
3. Do not exaggerate the precision of results by quoting too many decimal places in tables. It is useful to bear in mind that two 'efficient digits' will generally provide sufficient precision. i.e. approximately 1% of the range. Conventionally, the standard error should be quoted to one more decimal place than the mean.
4. The major purpose of tables is the presentation of results. Statistically appropriate tests of hypotheses are acceptable, but should be restricted to comparisons that are important to the biological argument. The indiscriminate use of 'multiple comparison' procedures is not acceptable; the structure of many experiments provides a logical basis for testing. Where a response changes progressively with a quantitative factor (e.g. dose-response relationship) or with another variable, authors should consider using smooth curves to describe the relationship.
5. Authors should ensure that quoted SEs or SEDs are appropriate for the comparisons being made. In particular, it is important not to pool different sources of variation (cf. Note 1).
6. Where the data are clearly not normally distributed, or where the SEs are not expected to be equal, Generalised Linear Models (GLMs) or transformations should be used. In both cases it is usually better to present the results in the scale of the original measurement, i.e. the natural rather than the transformed scale. Care, however, must be taken in deriving interval estimates on the natural scale when analysis has been done on transformed data: back-transformed SEs are usually meaningless. Data expressed as counts or percentages need particular attention. For appropriate transformations, see for example Snedecor & Cochran (1980); a suitable reference to GLMs is Dobson (1990).
7. Where repeated observations are made on each experimental unit, standard methods of analysis of variance are not usually valid. For quantitative data, the methods discussed by Rowell & Walters (1976) are usually appropriate. Note that the use of probit analysis techniques is not appropriate for the determination of LT50s where time samples are based on the same group of insects, etc; mean or median times to response are acceptable, though the models described in Brain & Butler (1988) are more appropriate.
Brain P, Butler R. 1988. Cumulative Count Data. Genstat Newsletter No.22. Oxford: NAG Ltd.
Dobson A J. 1990. An Introduction to Generalized Linear Models. Chapman and Hall.
Rowell J G, Walters D E. 1976. Analysing data with repeated observation on each experimental unit. Journal of Agricultural Science, Cambridge 87:423-432.
Snedecor G W, Cochran W G. 1980. Statistical Methods (7th Edn). Iowa State University Press. 96 pp.
The following, though not referred to directly, provide useful additional guidance:
Maindonald J H. 1992. Statistical design, analysis and presentation issues. New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research 35:121-141.
Murray A W A. 1986. Recommendations of the Editorial Board on Use of Statistics in Papers Submitted to JSFA - Guidelines to Authors. 10 pp.
Nelson L A. 1989. A statistical editor's viewpoint of statistical usage in horticultural science publications. HortScience 24:53-57.